Orthodontics, the dental specialty devoted to identifying, preventing, and correcting misaligned teeth and jaws (also known as malocclusions), has roots that stretch into antiquity. Over time, the field has undergone substantial progress in its technology and methods. Here is a little history on orthodontics.
Ancient Orthodontic Beginnings
Evidence of orthodontic practices dates back to ancient civilizations. Archaeologists have discovered mummified remains with crude metal bands wrapped around individual teeth from around 1000 BC. Writings by ancient Greeks and Romans, including Hippocrates and Aulus Cornelius Celsus, also discuss various aspects of dental irregularities.
Orthodontics in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Orthodontics began to evolve as more than just a curiosity during the 18th century with the work of Pierre Fauchard, a French dentist, often called the “Father of Modern Dentistry.” He invented the bandeau, a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that helped expand the arch. In the 19th century, orthodontics progressed with the contributions of dentists like J.S. Gunnell, who invented the occipital anchorage (using the force from the back of the head and surrounding area to move teeth), and Norman W. Kingsley and J. N. Farrar who were among the first to recommend the use of mild force at timed intervals to move teeth.
The 20th Century and Modern Orthodontics
The orthodontic field was formally established as a dental specialty in the early 20th century thanks to the pioneering work of Edward H. Angle, who is revered as the “Father of Modern Orthodontics.” Angle’s significant contribution was recognizing the nature of malocclusion, which pertains to the incorrect alignment of teeth. He developed the initial classification system for different types of malocclusions. Further cementing his legacy, he founded the first dedicated orthodontic school and college, initiated the American Society of Orthodontia — later known as the American Association of Orthodontists in the 1930s — and launched the inaugural journal devoted to orthodontic research.
The 20th century saw significant advancements, including the transition from metal bands to brackets. Initially, bands were wrapped around each tooth to create movement in the jaw. This process shifted to the direct bonding of brackets to the front of each tooth, and these were then moved by forces exerted with wires. Stainless steel replaced gold and silver as a staple of braces, primarily because of its bendability, strength, and significantly lower cost.
Orthodontics in the 21st Century
Today, orthodontics has evolved into a sophisticated field with various treatment options available for patients. Innovations such as digital imaging and computerized treatment planning, along with advances in materials and techniques, have made treatments more comfortable, aesthetic, and efficient.
The introduction of clear aligner systems like Invisalign and ClearCorrect provides a popular alternative to traditional metal braces, particularly for adults. Lingual braces, which are fitted behind the teeth, offer a virtually invisible option. Orthodontic mini-implants, also known as temporary anchorage devices (TADs), allow for more complex tooth movements with greater precision. (For some orthodontic procedures, the Placerville Dental Group refers our patients to an orthodontic specialist.)
Modern orthodontics not only focuses on the aesthetic aspects of straight teeth but also on the functional relationship between the teeth and the jaw structure. Orthodontists today work with patients of all ages to correct bite issues, address spacing and crowding problems, and manage the growth and development of the jaw and teeth in children.
The evolution of orthodontics is a fascinating story, spanning from primitive beginnings to its current status as a cutting-edge field in dental medicine. Using the advanced technology that is available today and customizing it to the need of each patient, the best functional and cosmetic outcome is possible! Reach out to the Placerville Dental Group to arrange a consultation and explore your personalized orthodontic treatment plan today!